WHAT IS MEANT BY GROUND EROSION
Soil erosion is both a natural and manmade process whereby there is a movement of soil from one location to another. It becomes a problem when human activity causes it to occur much faster than under natural conditions. Soil erosion is the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particle on land surfaces. Offsite effect of erosion are siltation in ditches, streams, reservoirs. Sediment generated by such erosion processes can also be a prime carrier of chemicals that pollutes stream, rivers or lakes. Soil erosion can also be described as the washing or blowing away of the top layer of the soil. Whatever the mechanism, water, wind, tillage or construction activities, three distinct action are a consequence – soil detachment, Soil movement and Soil deposition.
Soil Erosion Issues
Soil erosion deteriorates soil quality and reduces the productivity of natural agriculture processes and ecosystems. In addition, Soil erosion deteriorates the quality of water while increased sedimentation causes a reduction in the carrying capacity of water courses.
Types of Soil Erosion
- Normal or geologic erosion occurs under normal natural conditions by itself without the interference of man. It is a very slow process.
- Accelerated soil erosion is the most serious types of loss generally caused by an interference of any agencies like man and animals. It is a rapid process.
- Geological Erosion: Soil forming and distribution- long-time process.
- Human and animal: Civil Construction, Agricultural tillage, removal of plants and other vegetation- accelerated erosion.
- Stream bank erosion.
- Landslide, Volcanic eruption, flooding and wind: major factors of soil erosion.
What is Erosion Control?
- Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in civil construction, agriculture land development, river banks and coastal areas.
- Using land according to its capability.
- Protecting the soil surface with some form of cover.
- Controlling runoff before it develops into an erosive force.